Catalogue of Cardinals
(T - Z)


TAURAN Jean-Louis
Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran, Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, was born on 5 April 1943 in Bordeaux, France. He was ordained a priest on 20 September 1969. He holds licentiates in philosophy and theology and a degree in canon law.
Following ordination, Cardinal Tauran served as parochial vicar in Bordeaux. In March 1975 he entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See and was assigned to the Apostolic Nunciature of the Dominican Republic, and was later transferred to the Apostolic Nunciature in Lebanon. He represented the Holy See at the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and participated in various European conferences.
In 1988 he was appointed Undersecretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church (now known as the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State). On 6 January 1991 he was consecrated as titular Bishop of Thelepte and appointed as Secretary of the Council. He has led the Holy See Delegation at numerous international conferences.
In 1991, Cardinal Tauran was appointed Secretary for Relations with States. On 24 November 2003 he was nominated Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church.

Curial membership:

   * Second Section of Secretiat of State
   * Doctrine of the Faith, Oriental Churches, Bishops (congregations)
   * Vatican City State (commission)
   * Apostolic Signatura (tribunal)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 October 2003, of the Deaconry of St. Apollonius at the Neronian-Alexandrian Baths.

Cardinal Julio Terrazas Sandoval, C.SS.R., Archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia), was born on 7 March 1936 in Vallegrande, Bolivia. He was ordained for the Redemptorists on 29 July 1962 and holds a degree in social ministry from EMACAS University, France.

He was superior of the Redemptorist community in Vallegrande and vicar forane. On 15 April 1978 he was appointed Auxiliary of La Paz and ordained on 8 June. He chaired the Episcopal Commission on the Laity, Youth and Vocations and was a member of CELAM's Commission on the Laity.

On 9 January 1982 he was transferred to the residential see of Oruro.

He attended the 1980, 1985 and 1987 Synod of Bishops and the Special Assembly for America in 1997. He was elected President of the Bolivian Episcopal Conference in 1985 and 1988, and is currently President.

He was appointed Archbishop of Santa Cruz on 6 February 1991. He has held an Archdiocesan Synod, has actively promoted vocations and is building a new major seminary.

Curial membership:

   * Laity (council)
   * Latin America (commission)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 February 2001, of the Title of St. John the Baptist of Rossi.

Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, Archbishop of Milan (Italy), was born on 14 March 1934 in Renate, Italy. At the age of 11 he entered the diocesan seminary of Seveso San Pietro, where he began his studies. He then attended the Seminary of Lower Venegono until 1957 when he received a licentiate in theology. In the same year on 28 June, he was ordained for the Archdicoese of Milan. He holds a doctorate in theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

For over 20 years he taught fundamental theology a the major seminary of Lower Venegono and pastoral theology at the Priestly Institute of Mary Immaculate and the Lombard Regional Institute of Pastoral Ministry, Milan. He is also the author of many written works.

Even with an intense academic activity, he was able to participate at meetings, conventions, refresher courses, and televised debates. He has also contributed written works to the ‘Osservatore Romano’ and ‘Avvenire’. Aside from this, he still managed to maintain his pastoral activity in the parishes of Masnago, San Pietro martire in Seveso, Santo Stefano Arno, Turate. He has been very active in the Italian Confederation of Family Counseling Centers of Christian inspiration from 1979 to 1989, in Oari (a pastoral movement for the communion and hope for those who suffer) and in the Association of Italian Catholic Medical Doctors, Milan section for nearly 20 years.

Having been made Prelate of Honor of His Holiness in 1985, on 11 September 1987, he was called to serve as rector of the Pontifical Lombard Seminary. During this period he continued to offer his service to the CEI, the Holy See and to diverse theology institutes. On 28 April 1989, the CEI called him to be president of the board of directors of the newspaper ‘Avvenire’.

On 1 July 1989 he was elected Metropolitan Archbishop of Ancona-Osma. He received episcopal ordination on 23 September 1989. During this period he was president of the Episcopal Conference of the Marche region and in June 1990 was elected president of the Bishops’ Commission of the CEI for the Family.

On 14 March 1991 he was named Secretary General of the CEI and on 6 April of the same year he resigned from the see of Ancona-Osma. After 4 years of intense work of serving the Italian Church, on 20 April 1995 he was named Metropolitan Archbishop of Genoa. He also served as president of the regional episcopal conference.

On 25 May 1995 until May 2000 he was named vice president of the CEI. In January 1998, the Permanent Council of the CEI named him chaplain to the Italian Catholic Medical Doctors Association.

He participated as an expert at the Sinod of Bishops on the Family (1980) and on the Laity (1987) and as a synodal father at the two Special Assemblies of the Synod of Bishops for Europe (1991 and 1999) and the Synod on Consecrated Life (1994).

Archbishop of Milan, 11 July 2002.

Curial membership:


     Clergy, Catholic Education, Oriental Churches (congregations)

     Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)
   * Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
   * Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops
   * Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bihops

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 February 1998, of the Title of Sts. Ambrose and Charles.

TOPPO Telesphore Placidus
Cardinal Telesphore Placidus Toppo, Archbishop of Ranchi (India), was born on 15 October 1939 in Chainpur, India. He was ordained a priest on 3 May 1969. Cardinal Toppo studied at the Regional Major Seminary of St Albert's College in Ranchi. He holds a bachelor of arts degree from St Xavier's College, Ranchi, and a master of arts degree in history from Ranchi University, Ranchi. After his studies in theology at the Pontifical Urbaniana College in Rome, he was ordained Bishop of Dumka on 8 June 1978.
Cardinal Toppo served first as assistant teacher and then Headmaster at the St Joseph's High School, Torpa, and later founded and also directed the “Lievens’ Vocational Centre, Torpa”. He was appointed Archbishop Coadjutor of Ranchi on 8 November 1984 and succeeded to the See of Ranchi on 7 August 1985, being installed on 25 August.
Cardinal Toppo is currently President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India (CCBI). In 2002 he received the Jharkhand Ratan Award for distinguished social work done in Jharkhand.

Curial membership:

   * Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
   * Interreligious Dialogue (council)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 October 2003, of the Title of Sacred Heart of Jesus in Agony in Vitinia.
TUMI Christian Wiyghan
Cardinal Christian Wiyghan Tumi, Archbishop of Douala (Cameroon), was born on 15 October 1930 in Kikaikelaki, Cameroon. He did his secondary studies at diocesan seminaries and at the seminaries of Ibadan, Bodija and Enugu in Nigeria. From 1969 to 1973 he obtained in Nigeria a Teachers’ Training Grade; a University General Certificate of Education at Ordinary Level in London; a licentiate in theology at the Catholic Faculty of Lyon; a doctorate in philosophy at the Catholic University of Fribourg, Switzerland. He is well versed in his native dialect, Nso, Pidgin and Hausa, Latin, English, and French.

He was ordained a priest on 17 April 1966 in Soppo, diocese of Buéa and from 1966 to 1967 carried out his ministry as a parochial vicar at Fiango (Kumbo). From 1967 to 1969 he was a professor at the Bishop Rogan College minor seminary. In 1973, after having studied abroad, he returned to his diocese and was named rector of the major regional seminary of Bambui, archdiocese of Bamenda. He was also chaplain to the Association of Catholic Dames and was very involved in promoting the ecumenical movement, obtaining much esteem by Presbyterians and Baptists.

President of the presbyteral diocesan council, on 6 December 1979 he was elected the first bishop of the diocese of Yagoua, erected the same day. He received episcopal ordination on 6 January 1980 in St. Peter’s Basilica.

During his pastoral care, the local church developed rapidly, enriched with institutions and centers of formation, nursery schools and dispenaries.

Elected on 23 April 1982 vice-president of the Episcopal Conference, on 19 November 1982 he was promoted to Coadjutor Archbishop of Garoua. On 17 March 1984 he was made Archbishop.

In 1985 he was elected as president of the National Episcopal Conference of Cameroon (until 1991), and participated in the extraordinary assembly of the Synod of Bishops of 1985.

Archbishop of Douala, 31 August 1991.

President delegate to the 8th General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops (1990); President delegate to the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops (1994).

Curial membership:


     Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)
   * Culture, Cor Unum (councils)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 28 June 1988, of the Title of Martyrs of Uganda a Poggio Ameno.

TURCOTTE Jean-Claude
Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, Archbishop of Montreal (Canada)  , was born in Montreal close to the parish of St Marguerite Marie, on 26 June 1936.

He had a classical education at the André-Grasset school (1947-1955). He entered Montreal's Major Seminary, continued to study theology and obtained a diploma in theology. He was ordained priest on 24 May 1959 in the Church of St Vincent de Paul by Auxiliary Bishop Laurent Morin of Montreal.

He was first named vicar to the parish of St Mathias (1959-1961), and subsequently, diocesan assistant-chaplain for Christian working youth (1961-1964). He continued his studies in France at the Catholic faculties in Lille, studies which were rewarded by a diploma in social ministry (1964-1965). Returning to his own country, he was made diocesan chaplain of the JICF and the Movement of Christian workers (1965-1967).

From 1967-1974, he held various posts in the Office for Clergy: he was responsible for seminarians in the Diocese of Montreal, Secretary of the Commission des Traitements, and in charge of the studies and ongoing formation of the clergy. In 1974 he became director of the department for the parish's pastoral care.

On 25 September 1981, Archbishop Paul Grégoire appointed him Vicar General of the Diocese, and general co-ordinator of the pastoral programmes.

On 14 April 1982, he was appointed titular Bishop of Suas by Pope John Paul II, and simultaneously, Auxiliary to the Archbishop of Montreal. He received his episcopal ordination from the hands of Archbishop Paul Grégoire on 29 June 1982.

He was delegate of the Bishops of Quebec to the provincial Government at the time of the Holy Father's visit in September 1984. He was also responsible for co-ordinating the visit in the Diocese of Montreal.

On 17 March 1990, Pope John Paul II named Bishop Jean-Claude Turcotte Archbishop of Montreal.

In August 1993, the Eighth World Youth Day was held in Denver. Archbishop Turcotte was invited to give a catechesis to the French-speaking youth on this occasion, on the theme: 'For me, proclaiming the Gospel is not a reason for glory, but a duty'. Invited by Pope John Paul II, he took part in the Synod on 'The consecrated life and its role in the Church and in the world', which was held in Rome in October 1994 and in the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops of 1997, in which he was President of the Commission for the message.

President of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops since 1997 to 2000.

Curial membership:


     Causes of Saints (congregation)

     Social Communications (council)
   * Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
   * Special Council for America of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 26 November 1994, of the Title of Our Lady of the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Canadian Martyrs.

TURKSON Peter Kodwo Appiah
Cardinal Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson, Archbishop of Cape Coast (Ghana), was born on 11 October 1948 in Wassaw Nsuta, Ghana. He was ordained for the Diocese of Cape Coast on 20 July 1975 and holds a doctorate in Sacred Scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome.
From 1975-76 and 1980-81 he served as staff member at St Theresa’s Minor Seminary, and from 1981-87 as staff member at St Peter’s Major Seminary. On 6 October 1992 he was appointed Archbishop of Cape Coast and was ordained on 27 March 1993.
From 1997 until now he has been President of the Ghana Catholic Bishops’ Conference and member of the Pontifical Commission: Methodist-Catholic Dialogue. Since 2002, he has served as a member of the National Sustainable Development, Ministry of Environment; member of the Board of Directors of the Central Regional Development Committee and treasurer of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM).

Curial membership:

   * Christian Unity (council)
   * Cultural Heritage (commission)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 October 2003, of the Title of St. Liberius.

VIDAL Ricardo J.
Cardinal Ricardo J. Vidal, Archbishop of Cebu (Philippines)  , was born on 6 February 1931 in Mogpoc, Philippines. He did his studies at the minor seminary of the Most Holy Rosary (which later assumed the title of Our Lady of Carmel) and at the seminary of San Carlo.

He was ordained on 17 March 1956. The Bishop of Lucena entrusted him as spiritual director of the local seminary of Mount Carmel. He then became superior of the same institute and was dedicated to the formation of the young candidates to priesthood until 10 September 1971, when he was named Coadjutor Bishop of Malolos, Bulacan, and was elected to the titular church of Claterna. He received episcopal ordination on 30 November 1971. On 22 August 1973 he was named Archbishop of Lipa in Batangas.

On 13 April 1981 he was named Coadjutor with the right of succession to the Archbishop of Cebu, Cardinal Julio Rosales. He was named Archbishop on 24 August 1982.

He served as president of the Bishops’ Commission for Vocations within the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines. He was also vice-president of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference and then president from 1985 to 1987.

Curial membership:


     Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)
   * Health-Care Workers, Family (councils)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 25 May 1985, of the Title of Sts. Peter and Paul in Via Ostiense.

Cardinal Varkey Vithayathil, C.SS.R., Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly for Syro-Malabars (India), was born on 29 May 1927 in Parur, India. He was ordained for the Redemptorists on 12 June 1954 and holds a doctorate in canon law from the Pontifical University of St Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum), Rome.

For 25 years he taught canon law at the Redemptorists' major seminary in Bangalore. He also served as Provincial for India and Sri Lanka (1978-84), President of the Conference of Religious, India (1984-85) and Apostolic Administrator of the Asirvanam Benedictine Monastery in Bangalore (1990-96).

On 11 November 1996 he was appointed titular Archbishop of Ohrid (2 years later, Archbishop of Ckeikh-Abadeh) and Apostolic Administrator of the vacant see of Ernakulam-Angamaly for Syro-Malabars, receiving episcopal ordination from the Holy Father on 6 January 1997.

On 18 December 1999 he was appointed Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly for Syro-Malabars.

President of the Synod of the Syro-Malabar Church.

Curial membership:

   * Oriental Churches (congregation)
   * Legislative texts, Christian Unity (councils)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 February 2001, of the Title of St. Bernard at the Baths.

VLK Miloslav
Cardinal Miloslav Vlk, Archbishop of Prague (Czech Republic), was born on 17 May 1932 in Líšnice, Sepekov parish, in the Písek district of Southern Bohemia. He spent his childhood in Záluzí near Chyšky, where he attended elementary school and experienced the hard labour of farm work.

At the age of 11, he first started thinking about the priesthood. This initial idea of a priestly vocation came to him because he felt particularly challenged by a poster hanging in his parish church that continued to attract his attention. The poster said: 'Wouldn't you like to become a priest?'. That goal seemed unattainable at the time, so he dreamed of becoming an aircraft pilot.

On 20 June 1952 he passed his final examination at Jirsfk Secondary School in C(eské Bude(jovice, Southern Bohemia. In those years of communist persecution theological studies were impossible, so from 1952 to 1953 he worked at the Motor Union automobile factory in C(eské Bude(jovice and from 1953 to 1955 did military service in Karlovy Vary.

Despite the political situation, after being discharged, he was able to study archival science at the Arts Faculty of the Charles University in Prague and received his degree in 1960. He worked in various archives in Southern Bohemia: at the Regional Archives of Tr(ebon( in Jindr(ichüv Hradec, and from December 1960 to 1964 at the Civic and District Archives of C(eské Bude(jovice , where he served as director.

In this same period he published a series of articles in various scientific reviews. In 1964 he left this work in order to study at the Theology Faculty of Sts Cyril and Methodius in Litome(r(ice (1964- 1968).

On 23 June 1968, during the 'Prague Spring', he was ordained a priest at the age of 36 and was immediately appointed secretary to Bishop Josef Hlouch of C(eské Bude(jovice (1968-1971).

The State authorities, worried about his influence and pastoral activity, forced him in 1971 to leave C(eské Bude(jovice and sent him to the parishes of Laište( and Záblatí, isolated on the mountains of the Bohemian Forest in the Prachatitz district. From 1 November 1972 he was parish priest in Romitál pod Tr(emšínem and at the same time in Bohutín and Drahenice, in the Pr(íbram disrict. There, in 1978 the State authorities, in collaboration with the local communists, revoked his state authorization to exercise his priestly ministry.

'Citizen Miloslav Vlk' was thus forced to live underground in Prague from October 1978 to 31 December 1988.

From 1978 to 1986 he worked as a window-cleaner in downtown Prague. In this period he secretly carried out his pastoral activity with small groups of lay people. From 1986 to 1988 he was able to work in the district archives of the Czechoslovak State Bank in Prague.

On 1 January 1989, at the start of the 'turning point', he was permitted to exercise the priestly ministry for a 'trial' year. He became parish priest at ihobce and Bukovník in the Klatovy region of Western Bohemia. Subsequently, on 1 September 1989, he began to work as a curate on the Bavarian border: at C(achrov, Javorná, elezná Ruda, Be(šiny and Strá na Šumave(.

With the so-called 'velvet revolution', the history of worker Miloslav Vlk suddenly changed. On 14 February 1990 the Holy Father appointed him Bishop of C(eské Bude(jovice and he received episcopal ordination on 31 March 1990 from Bishop Antonín Liška.

After a year at this post, on 27 March 1991 Pope John Paul II appointed Bishop Vlk as the Archbishop of Prague, successor to the late Cardinal František Tomášek. The official installation took place on 1 June 1991. In 1992 he was elected President of the Czech Episcopal Conference; a role that he held until 2001. From 16 April 1993 until 31 May 2001 Archbishop Vlk was President of the Council of European Episcopal Conferences (CCEE), as the successor to Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, Archbishop of Milan, Italy.

Between 1992 and 1993 he received three honorary degrees: one each from Illinois Benedictine College and the University of St Thomas in the USA, and a doctorate in theology from the Faculty of Passau. In addition to these academic awards he has also received various honorary citizenships.

Special Secretary of the 1st Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops (1991); and has taken part in the 9th General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops (1994) and in the 2nd Special Assembly for Europe (1999).

Curial membership:

   * Oriental Churches (congregation)
   * Social Communications (council)
   * Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 26 November 1994, of the Title of Holy Cross in Jerusalem.


WAMALA Emmanuel
Cardinal Emmanuel Wamala, Archbishop of Kampala, (Uganda),  was born on 15 December 1926 at Kamaggwa, in the parish of Lwaggulwe in the Diocese of Masaka. His father, Cosma Kyamcra and his mother, Theresa Nnamayanja, were blessed by the birth of 10 children, two of whom died while still babies. Of the eight remaining children (five boys and three girls) two became priests, one a religious and the others married.

He went to the elementary school of Kalisizo and Bakira for four years, before he entered Bukasala Minor Seminary in 1942. After seven years in Bukasala, he attended the National Major Seminary of Katingodo from 1949 to 1955. He gained pastoral experience in Kabula parish in the Masaka Diocese. In September 1956, he was sent to Rome for further study at the Pontifical Urban University, where he obtained a licentiate in theology (doctorate of letters). He was ordained priest on 21 December 1957, in Rome.

After his ordination, Archbishop Wamala continued his studies at the Gregorian University in Rome (1958-1960) earning a licentiate in social sciences. He returned to Uganda in 1960.

For two years after returning to Uganda in 1960, Emmanuel Wamala worked at the parish of Villa Maria which then functioned as the Diocesan School Supervisor in the Diocese of Masaka. From 1962 to 1964 he took a course in pedagogy at Makerere University, Kampala. After gaining a diploma in pedagogy at Makerere University in 1964 he was sent to teach at Bukalasa Minor Seminary until 1968, when he was appointed chaplain of Makerere University. He held this post until 1974.

In 1974 he was named Vicar General of Masaka and at the same time for a certain period, parish priest of Nkoni (1975-1977) and of Kimaanya (1977-79). In 1977, Paul VI conferred on him the title of Chaplain of His Holiness.

After his appointment as Bishop of Kiyinda-Mityana on 17 July 1981, on 22 November 1981 he was ordained by Cardinal Emmanuel Nsubuga.

On 21 June 1988 he was promoted to the rank of Coadjutor Bishop of Kampala. On 8 February 1990, he succeeded Cardinal Nsubuga.

Archbishop Emmanuel Wamala has been President of the Episcopal Conference of Uganda (1986-1994).

Since 1990, he has also been President of the Uganda Joint Christian.

Archbishop Wamala became the first Rector of the New Uganda Martyrs University, officially opened on 18 October 1993.

Curial membership:


     Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
   * Cor Unum (council)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the consistory of 26 November 1994, of the Title of St. Hugh.

WETTER Friedrich
Cardinal Friedrich Wetter, Archbishop of Munich and Freising (Germany), was born on 20 February 1928 in Landau, Germany. He attended philosophy courses at the advanced institute St. George in Frankfurt. He then studied theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome and was a member of the German-Hungarian College.

He was ordained a priest on 10 October 1953 and completed his studies in Rome with a doctorate in theology, discussing a thesis on the problem of life after death. He then qualified as a university teach with a thesis on the doctrine of the Trinity of John Duns Scoto. In 1962 he was a professor of theology at the advanced institute of philosophy and theology of Eichstatt and in 1967 he was professor of dogmatic theology.

He was elected Bishop of Speyer on 28 May 1968 and was ordained on the following 29 June. After 14 years, on 28 October 1982 he was made Archbishop of Munich and Freising.

Curial membership:

   * Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 25 May 1985, of the Title of St. Stephen al Monte Celio.
WILLIAMS Thomas Stafford
Cardinal Thomas Stafford Williams, Archbishop of Wellington  and Military Ordinary for New Zealand  , was born on 20 March 1930 in Wellington and received his primary and secondary education in Catholic schools.

He studied for a Bachelor of Commerce Degree at Victoria University, Wellington, and worked for some years as an accountant. He was deeply involved in the Catholic Youth Movement (YCW) and for a period worked full-time for the movement.

In 1954 he commenced studies for the priesthood at the National Seminary, Holy Cross College in Dunedin, and in 1956 was sent to the Pontifical Urban University where he obtained a licentiate in theology.

He was ordained a priest on 20 December 1959. He then attended University College, Dublin and received a degree in social sciences.

Returning to Wellington, he served as assistant pastor and Director of Studies at the Catholic Enquiry Center, which had already brought the light of faith to many non-Catholics. He left that post when he volunteered to serve as a missionary in Western Samoa (today the Archdiocese of Samoa-Apia), where he was parish priest for 5 years.

Upon returning to Wellington at the end of 1975 he was parish priest at Porirua East, one of the Archdiocese's most multi-cultural parishes. Four years later, on 30 October 1979 he was named Archbishop of Wellington and was ordained on 20 December.

President of the New Zealand Catholic Bishops Conference, 1980-1988.

Founding President of the Federation of Catholic Bishops Conferences of Oceania, 1990-1998.

Military Ordinary for New Zealand, 1995-.

President Delegate of the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops (November-December 1998).

Curial membership:

   * Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
   * Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
   * Special Council for Oceania of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 2 February 1983, of the Title of Jesus the Divine Teacher a Pineta Sacchetti.


Cardinal Gabriel Zubeir Wako, Archbishop of Khartoum (Sudan), was born on 27 February 1941 in Mboro, Sudan. He was ordained a priest on 21 July 1963 and holds a licentiate in theology with a specialization in pastoral theology.
He began his priestly ministry as an assistant parish priest and as inspector for Christian Religious Education in the schools of the Gogrial District. He later served as rector of St Anthony’s Minor Seminary, Bussere, and was procurator for the Vicariate of Wau, where he also served as vicar delegate. He also held the post of provincial commissioner of the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides.
On 12 December 1974, he was appointed as Bishop of Wau and was ordained on 6 April 1975. On 30 October 1979 he was appointed as Coadjutor Bishop of Khartoum.
Cardinal Zubeir Wako has been Archbishop of Khartoum since 1981 and President of the Sudan Catholic Bishops’ Conference since 1992.

Curial membership:

   * Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
   * Cor Unum (council)

Created and proclaimed Cardinal by John Paul II in the Consistory of 21 October 2003, of the Title of St. Athanasius in Via Tiburtina.